Policy and Analysis


The Roots of Restraint in War (co-investigator), International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland, June 2018 (my research was the basis for Chapter 2, “Integrated State Armed Forces”).

For background and a summary of the Roots of Restraint in War study, see the ICRC Humanitarian Law and Policy blog article “Behind the Scenes: The Roots of Restraint in War Study” (2018).


Washington Post (Monkey Cage), “Thousands of Nontraditional Fighters Have Joined the Ukraine War. That Puts Civilians at Risk, Research Shows,” July 27, 2022 (with Katherine Kramer).

EJILTalk! (Blog of European Journal of International Law), “The Training and Socialization of Combatants to IHL Norms: A Brief Review,” November 19, 2021 (part of the Oxford University Forum on International Humanitarian Law Compliance with Articles of War, Lieber Institute for Law and Warfare, U.S. Military Academy).

Washington Post (Monkey Cage), “Australia Discovered that its Special Forces Committed War Crimes in Afghanistan: Here’s the Research on How Militaries Can Reduce Violence Against Civilians,” December 1, 2020 (with Thomas Gift and Charles Miller).

Newsweek, 200,000 Losses Later, Some Lessons for the ‘Wartime President’,” September 22, 2020 (with Thomas Gift).

Political Violence at a Glance, “Trump’s Casual Approach to War Crimes Has Grave Implications,” January 10, 2020 (with Thomas Gift).

The Hill, “The Unpardonable Pardon of Eddie Gallagher,” December 31, 2019 (with Thomas Gift).

War on the Rocks, “War Crimes Pardons and What They Mean for the Military,” December 5, 2019 (with Thomas Gift).

The Hill, Pardoning War Crimes Dishonors the Military,” November 15, 2019 (with Thomas Gift).

The Conversation,Trump and the Problem with Pardons,” May 26, 2019.

Political Violence at a Glance, What Are the Roots of Restraint?” July 3, 2018 (with Oliver Kaplan).

The Conversation, Syria, Chemical Weapons and the Limits of International Law,” April 16, 2018 (published online by Newsweek and others)

Just Security, “Syria, Chemical Weapons, and a Qualitative Threshold for Humanitarian Intervention,” April 10, 2018.

The Conversation, Trump Threatens to ‘Corrode the Ethical Core’ of the Military,” January 23, 2017 (also published online by Newsweek and others).

Foreign Policy, The Best Defense, We need to understand what we mean when we talk about command climate,” May 30, 2013 (with Maj. Kurt Sanger, USMC).